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Culturally Persianized, they, in combination with the later Mughal dynasty (of Turco-Mongol origin), influenced the art, history and literature of the region for more than 500 years, resulting in the Persianisation of many Indian tongues, mainly lexically.
In 1837, the British replaced Persian with English for administrative purposes, and the Hindi movement of the 19th Century replaced the Persianised vocabulary for one derived from Sanskrit also replacing the use of the Perso-Arabic script for Hindi/Hindustani with Devanagari.
The modern north Indian Indo-Aryan languages all evolved into distinct, recognisable languages in the New Indo-Aryan Age.
The Indo-Aryan languages developed and emerged in three stages — Old Indo-Aryan (1500 BCE to 600 BCE), Middle Indo-Aryan stage (600 BCE and 1000 CE) and New Indo-Aryan (between 1000 CE and 1300 CE).
English was legislated to be reduced to the status of a "subsidiary official language" after fifteen years.
But this provision of the constitution was negated by a provision in Section 3, of the same Article 343 that gave primacy to The Official Languages Act, 1963.
According to Census of India of 2001, India has 122 major languages and 1599 other languages.
However, figures from other sources vary, primarily due to differences in definition of the terms "language" and "dialect".